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Geochemistry Physics - Coursework Example Mechanical infiltration also plays a vital part in the downward movement of clay sized particles. Carbonate rocks such as limestone are affected by inversion, recrystallisation and grain growth as well. Typical processes that affect carbonate rocks are (sequentially) biochemical degradation, polycondensation and insolubilisation. 2. Why is the smectite to illite transition important in the process of petroleum formation? The smectite to illite transition is an important diagenesis reaction especially for shales with progressive burial. This transformation has the potential to flush hydrocarbons from various shales, accelerating the generation of hydrocarbons, producing high pore fluid pressures and for provision of various cementation agents to different sandstones. 3. How would you expect the alkane/alkene ratio to change as a hydrocarbon mixture matures over geological time, and why? The alkane/alkene ratio would tend to decrease with time as a hydrocarbon mixture matures over geological time. This would take place as the biodegradation process would tend to remove alkanes so that the hydrocarbon mixture moves towards aromatics. 4. ... 5. What is a geochemical fossil? A geochemical fossil is the remains of any organic object that has been transformed by diagenesis into a fossilised state. The resulting fossilised state may not have been able to preserve the original structure of the fossilised object. 6. Explain how crude oils can be grouped based on their sulfur content. Crude oils are classified using sulphur content such that low sulphur content crude oils are known as â€œsweetâ€ while high sulphur content crude oils are known as â€œsourâ€. Typically low sulphur content crude oils are preferred because sulphur tends to display acidic behaviour. PART 2. 1. Draw the van Krevelen diagram and explain how it illustrates several important facts concerning the formation of petroleum. A van Krevelen diagram is generally plotted to evaluate the origins and maturity levels of kerogen and petroleum content. The van Krevelen diagram plots the ratio of hydrogen to carbon against the ratio for oxygen to carbon. Figure 1 - van Krevelen diagram sourced from (Monash University, 2008) Looking at the diagram above, it becomes obvious that the van Krevelen diagram differentiates between various hydrocarbon products depending on certain regions on the plot. The formation of liquid petroleum can be seen as resting between oxygenated products and gas products which signifies petroleum formation. Additionally the van Krevelen diagram illustrates the evolution paths of various kerogens through the various paths shown on the plot. The plot above shows four possible paths (I, II, III and IV) that denote increasing burial. Based on this the particular mix of petroleum obtainable is arrived at. 2. What is
Culture and Social Structure Essay Culture is a difficult thing to strictly define. Such a large variety of societal aspects fall under its realm, that its sometimes complicated to draw a line between what is part of a culture and what is not. To put it in extremely vague terms, culture is a way of life. All the traits that make up a particular society, from religious beliefs to modes of dress to art to methods of farming, build up a culture. Culture includes the good and the bad, the old and the new, the strong and the weak essentially it includes everything. Many varieties of cultures exist. There are the obvious ethnic cultures African-American culture, Latino culture, Greek culture, etc., each with their own foods, art, religion, familial roles, and values. American culture, for example, is generally considered to be relaxed apple pie, blue jeans, baseball and the like. Family roles are not set in stone, there is freedom to choose a religion based on ones own comfort (or choose no religion at all), and while a certain level of morality is maintained, values are generally loose. Compare this to the culture of the remote parts of India. There, a woman is required to serve her husband and his family, even after his death. They are very devout, and there is only one religion to choose from. They are held to a strict moral code, and anyone who violates this code is considered an outcast. There are many other ways to consider culture. There is the culture of a particular age group. A septuagenarian has a way of life very different than that of a teenager. His music, dress, beliefs, and goals are generally dissimilar to those of his younger counterpart. Or there is the culture of a particular time period. Pre-historic culture is, through modern inventions and human development, very different than the culture of today. A very important part of any culture is the social structure within. The social structure is essentially the roles or positions that particular individuals or groups in a culture fall into. For example, in the American culture, the President takes on a leadership role, those in the armed forces take on a protective role, and everyday citizens take on the responsibility of keeping the economy alive. On a much smaller scale, the social structure exists within a family as well. In your typical family, the mother takes on a nurturing position, while the father takes on the responsibility of earning money and providing for the others. Similarly, on a sports team, the coach is the leader, charged with guiding and motivating his players. The players themselves are responsible for putting forth their best effort and taking the team as far as it can go. While culture can be hard to define using words, one need only look around to experience everything that culture contains. Ones everyday life is culture, from the worldwide culture that everyone lives in, down to the personal culture of ones own house. Each person has a role in many different social structures, and each role is genuinely important. It is these roles, in these social structures that make up every part of every culture.